La Traviata Four-act opera by Giuseppe Verdi
Four-act opera by Giuseppe Verdi
Libretto - Francesco Maria Piave
Based on Alexander Dumas's novel - The Son of La Dame aux Camélias (The Lady with the Camellias)
Conductor - IVAN KOZHUKHAROV
Director - ALEXANDER TEKELIEV
Assistant Director - DARINA GLAVANAKOVA-BAKARDZHIEVA
Choir Conductor - NEVENA MIHAYLOVA
Concertmaster - JORDAN KOVACHEV
Set design and costumes - CATALIN ARBORE
Choreography - GALINA KALCHEVA
Prompter - DORA FARTUNOVA
Subtitles - SREBRINA SLAVOVA
BILIANA GEORGIEVA-KINCHEVA, MARGARITA PETRANOVA, MIGLENA SLAVOVA, OLGA DICHEVA, ARGIROVA-APOSTOLOVA
Head of production and theater director - Ivan Furtunov
Head of artistic lighting - KIRIL KARADIMOV
Head of the sewing studio - KITCHKA GROZEVA
Seamstresses - KITCHKA GROZEVA, MAGDA GALCHEVA, DIMKA RUSEVA
Wardrobe manager - DIMKA RUSEVA
Hair and Makeup - NADEZHDA TANEVA
Artistic sound - VESELIN PENCHEV
Multimedia and photo studio - NEDIALKO BAMBEKOV
Marketing and Sales - VIOLETA GUDZHEVA
Graphic Design, Advertising, and Public Relations - YANITA VODENICHAROVA
Georges Germon, his father
Flora Bervois, a friend of Violetta
Baron Dufol, a friend of Alfred's
Marquis D'Aubini, a friend of Flora's
Anina, Violeta's maid
Viscount Gaston de Letoria, a friend of Alfred's
Joseph, Violeta's servant
The action unfolded in Paris and its environs in the mid-nineteenth century.
History of creation
The Traviata premiere is only 45 days after the Troubadour. In 1848 Alexander Dumas-son's novel The Lady with Camellias was published. It makes a lot of noise. It's no secret for anyone in Paris that Marguerite Gautier's prototype is Marie Duplessis, who died at the age of 23, while the two Dumas traveled from Spain and Algeria, and Arman's prototype is the author himself. He does not hide this fact but adds that, nevertheless, the novel is not autobiographical, but merely an attempt to show the morals and prejudices of a part of society then, life in XIX century Paris - playful as a newly opened bottle of champagne and as hard-hearted as the gray of the next day.
When, in 1852, Verdi stumbles in Paris on Dumas-sin's play The Lady with Camellias with the famous actress Dosch in the role of Marguerite, he entrusts his literary associate Francesco Maria Piave to write the libretto. There, the content of the drama was shortened and with some changes, including the names: Marguerite became Violetta, Armand - Alfred, and the opera - "Traviata" (which in Italian means "roadless"). As soon as he graduated from Troubadour's score in November 1852, Verdi got into writing for Traviata and by the end of the year, much of the music had been completed. In January of the following year, he shared in a letter: "The Opera for Venice (" The La Traviata) has been making me so hard that I can barely find time to eat and a few hours to sleep ... "
The Traviata premiere was on March 6, 1835, in Venice with singer Donatello in the lead role. The opera is welcomed cold. The next day Verdi writes to his friend Emanuele Muzio: "Last night, the Traviata had a fiasco. Whether it's my fault or the singer's will judge the time. "And, in fact, later, Traviata became Verdi's most popular opera. It is played continuously and everywhere. It is no longer possible to count her performances even in the various opera houses. Despite this, it was initially accepted with reservations by many, including prominent musicians. For example, Russian composer and music writer Serov states: "The last act consists of one scene and it is: the dying of a young woman with tuberculosis. The effect is not dramatic but dramatic; the picture is not an opera, but a hospital one. But time refutes these words. Sam Dumas-son admits that "In fifty years no one will remember my Lady with the Camellias, but Verdi immortalized it." In 1867, the writer noted elsewhere: "Today it is no longer possible to write" The Lady with the Camellias camellias. " Not only will it no longer be real, but it will also be impossible. "
In Bulgaria, the Traviata is one of the first productions of the Opera Company. It was set up in 1910 under the direction of Todor Hadzhiev and directed by K. Mihaylov - Stoyan.
In the salon of the beautiful courtesan Violetta Valerie, the Paris Demi Mond celebrates her recovery and her return to worldly life. Viscount Gaston de Letorie came with his friend Alfred Germon, an honorable young man who had just arrived from the countryside. As soon as she sees the beautiful Violetta, Alfred falls in love with her. Captivated, he raises a cheerful salute in her honor. Violetta is excited. Has she, a worldly woman with so many pilgrims, not experienced these feelings so far? At that time, the dancing began in the adjacent hall. They all head there. Violeta, too, begins to follow them, but when she feels a sudden weakness, she sits down to rest. Alfred stays with her. The young man blames her for the life she leads. To cover up her excitement, Violetta replies to his fervent words with jokes. He finally presents him with camellia and invites him to visit her the next day. Guests are saying goodbye. Fortunately, Alfred is leaving. However, Violetta cannot stop thinking about him. The girl is confused - on the one hand, she feels that in her heart аre arising feelings towards the young man; on the other hand, she wonders if this love will only bring her suffering?
Alfred has awakened in Violetta a suspiciously deep and untested feeling. For three months now, the lovers have been living happily in a rented villa near Paris. But Violetta's savings are over, and in search of a way out, she, secretly from Alfred, begins to sell her belongings. Accidentally learning from Anina about Violeta's material difficulties, Alfred immediately went to Paris to seek money. Left alone, Violetta scans the mail absentmindedly. Among the letters is one of Flora's, in which she invites her girlfriend to a mask. However, this kind of entertainment no longer attracts the young woman. Suddenly, George Germon, Alfred's father, arrives at the villa. He accuses Violetta of ruining his son's life, and their relationship compromises the honor of the Germon family. Violetta tries to protect her love. She tells Alfred's father about her serious illness and assures him that her love for Alfred is the only thing that gives her the strength to continue living. Touched by the sincerity and depth of her feelings, Germon explains to her the motives for her coming - soon her daughter is about to marry, and her brother's relationship with the courtesan could thwart the planned marriage. When she hears this, the noble Violetta agrees to be a scapegoat and to give up her own happiness. She wrote a letter to her friend Flora announcing that she had accepted her invitation to the ball, to which she had previously refused to attend. He then wrote a farewell note to Alfred and left for Paris. Alfred goes home and reads the note, but refuses to believe that Violeta has left him forever. His father's efforts to reassure him are in vain - Alfred also saw Flora's invitation and interpreted Violetta's farewell letter differently. The young man is convinced that it is the masked ball that is the real reason for Violeta's departure. Filled with doubt, burned with insult and jealousy, Alfred immediately departs for Paris.
The Flora Mask Ball is in full swing. And the last invitees are already here, and everyone is totally unrestrained. Alfred also appears. Out of excitement, he sits by the table. Guests vividly comment on their surprising separation with Violetta. At that moment comes Violetta herself, accompanied by her longtime admirer Earl Duffol. This finally takes the young man off the rails. An unexpected encounter with a loved one makes Violet's suffering completely unbearable. Dufol is also uncomfortable sitting at the table opposite Alfred. The two start a card game in which bets are getting bigger and Alfred wins all the time. After the game, the young man approaches Violetta, asking her to tell him the true reason for their separation, but, true to his promise to his father, Violeta refuses. Her confused and hazy explanations make Alfred finally mad. Overwhelmed by fierce jealousy and unable to control himself anymore, he defiantly throws the money won at Violetta's feet at the startled looks of everyone. Here, that amount is paid for her three-month love for him! Drunk - paid! Afflicted with insult and humiliation, Violetta faints. This is where George Germon enters. When he understands what his son has just done, the old man angrily reproaches him for his cruelty and cynicism. Overwhelmed with despair, the distraught Alfred escapes.
Violeta's bedroom. Following the Flora scandal, the fragile health of the tuberculosis-infected courtesan has already worsened. Violetta feels the end of her end and does not want to see anyone. In vain are Dr. Grenville's efforts to give her courage and will to live. The young woman knows that the doctor himself does not believe his words. She feels the onset of death. Violetta forced Anina to give away all her possessions. Now she reads Georges Germon's letter for some time. The father has acknowledged the truth of his son and is now awaiting his return. The carnival continues. Suddenly, an agitated Anina rushes to the bedroom, eager to bring the good news to her mistress - Alfred has come and waits to receive him. Sensing an incredible surge of power on this news, Violeta, fortunate in happiness, eagerly orders Anina to release him. Alfred comes in. The two lovers are happy again. Alfred asks Violetta to forgive him. He will never, ever abandon her again! Alas, it's too late! ... Violeta is breathing in his hands ...