Il Trovatore Four Acts by Giuseppe Verdi

Libretto - Salvatore Camarano

Based on Antonio Garcia Gutierrez's drama of the same name


Conductor-director - IVAN KOZHUHAROV

Directing, set design and costumes - IVAN SAVOV

Choir Conductor - NEVENA MIHAYLOVA


Concertmaster - VANYA ZLATEVA

Assistant Director - DARINA GLAVANAKOVA







Production associates:

Head of production and theater master - Ivan Furtunov

Head of artistic lighting - KIRIL KARADIMOV


Head of the sewing studio - KITCHКA GROZEVA


Head wardrobe - IVANKA STANKOVA

Hair and makeup - NADEZHDA TANEVA

Artistic sounding by Veselin Penchev

Multimedia and photo studio - NEDELKO BAMBEKOV

Marketing and Sales - VIOLETA GUDZHEVA

Graphic Design, Advertising, and Public Relations - YANITA VODENICHAROVA



            After the production of Rigoletto, Verdi returns to Busseto to work on a new opera. The play the composer chooses is "Troubadour" - the debut of young Spanish playwright Antonio Garcia Gutierrez. Even before he wrote Rigoletto, Verdi drew the attention of librettist Salvatore Camarano to this romantic drama, "rich in ideas and feelings" (January 2, 1850), which could serve as the basis for operatic libretto.

            In Gutierrez's drama, historical events (the first uprisings of Spanish cities in the early 15th century) represent the common background against which fictional, intricate intrigue unfolds. The main actors in it are the Gypsy Azucena, who stole the child of Count di Luna to avenge her mother's death; the sons of the Count - Manrico, brought up by Azucena, and the young Count di Luna - enemies who do not suspect the blood connection between themselves; Leonora, Manrico's beloved, to whose hand his brother reaches out. The duel, the abduction from the monastery, the battles and finally the death of all the positive characters - these tragic images, incredible situations, and the whole gloomy protest tone in the play bring her closer to the romantic dramas of Victor Hugo.

            "People say that the opera is dark and there is too much death in it ... what else is in it? ..." (January 29, 1853). In these bitter words there is also disappointment with the extinguished revolution of 1848, the death of the Italian patriots and the death of loved ones.

            As in his earlier operas, at Troubadour, Verdi does not seek to recreate the historical setting. All the events that take place on the stage are just an occasion for him to create a bright and deep soul drama of the actors. And he achieves this with all the power of a mature gift.

            In Verdi's work, Troubadour stands closest to operas written on Hugo plots. The same dark color, sharp contrasts and romantic rebellion as in his early opera Hernani (1843). The same traits, combined with keen attention to the characteristics of the characters, relate the "Troubadour" stands closest to operas written on Hugo plots. The same dark color, sharp contrasts and romantic rebellion as in his early opera Hernani (1843). The same traits, combined with keen attention to the characters of the characters, relate Troubadour to Rigoletto. In its musical-dramatic totality, Troubadour is inferior to its close predecessor, but surpasses it by its inexhaustible melodic richness. The tunes of this opera are filled with passion, anger, burning grief, and sometimes with gentle, sublime lyrics. It is these tunes that are imbued with folk songs, which have won her huge popularity.

            Success has been accompanying the Troubadour since its first production (Rome, Apollo Theater, 19 January 1853). Tiber, pouring from its trough and flooding the streets adjacent to the theater, does not stop the audience, eager to hear Verdi's new opera. At nine o'clock in the morning, a crowd crowded the theater. The spectacle elicits universal delight. Soon after, the Troubadour was staged with triumphant success in Paris, London, Petersburg and other cities in Europe.

            In 1857 Verdi transformed the Troubadour for the Paris Grand Opera, where it was called "Le Trouvere". Significant changes to the new version were introduced in the third act, filled with a number of ballet scenes, and in the finale. The unusually laconic final version of the opera's main stage (after the final rubble) is expanded in the French version: when they bring Manrico to death, the Miserere sounds again and the farewell tune of the troubadour.

            Excerpts from the Troubadour were performed here in the first attempt to create an opera house - in 1891, when fragments of various operas were performed on January 2. The whole work of Verdi was staged in 1914 by the Opera Company under the direction of T. Hadzhiev and directed by K. Mihaylov - Stoyan.


Count di Luna, a nobleman

Leonora, Duchess

A learned gypsy

Manrico, troubadour, her adopted son, and brother to Count Di Luna

Ines, Lenora's friend

Ferrando, chief of the count's guard

Ruitz, a friend of Manrico

An old gypsy


The courtiers and servants of the Count, close to Manrico, Leonora's friends, nuns, soldiers, guards, gypsies and gypsies.

The action took place in Biscay and Aragon (Spain) in the 15th century.



First picture

            Lobby at the castle of Count di Luna. Midnight is approaching and the guards, tired and half asleep, are waiting for their change. In order to make them aware, the old chief of the Palace Guard, Ferrando, tells them a story that had been forgotten about twenty years ago: the old di Luna had two sons - one is today's Earl and the other is his younger brother. Once on the cradle of the little one saw an old gypsy. They immediately chased her away, but since then the baby started to faint. Everyone was sure it was enchanted. The Earl ordered them to capture the gypsy and burn it like a sorceress. However, her daughter vowed revenge. And she did - kidnapped the Earl's younger son and disappeared. They searched for the child wherever they were, but failed to find it. Finally, a baby bone was found in the ashes from the stake where the old gypsy was burned. Everyone decided the boy was probably dead. The old Earl could not survive the loss of his child and soon died. On his deathbed, he swore to his older son to find his brother. But he couldn't find it either. The tragic story began to be forgotten, only the belief that the spirit of the old sorceress had turned into a coward and often flew over the castle. One of the Earl's servants tried to kill the coward but died. The ominous story alarms superstitious guards. At midnight, a cuckoo flies over the castle. Deadly scared, the guards are hiding.


Second picture

            Garden in the palace castle. Courtier Leonora looks forward to meeting her beloved, troubadour Manrico. She tells her friend Ines how she presented the winner of the winner Manrico at a tournament. Since then, they have fallen in love with each other. It's getting late and Manrico is gone. Leonora regretfully goes home. Count Di Luna appears in the garden, who is in love with the beautiful girl and longs to make her his own. Suddenly, a troubadour love song sounds. Joyful Leonora goes out and throws herself into the arms of Count di Luna whom she has taken as her beloved. In the light of the moon rising from behind the clouds, however, she sees Manrico and pulls away from the Count's arms. The girl asks her lover to forgive her. Count di Luna, beset by mad jealousy, throws himself against the uninvited guest with his sword drawn. The unknown knight also raises his sword. With difficulty, Leonora shatters the two rivals. They swear to meet again.


The second action is the gypsy

Third picture

            Gypsy camp in the Biscay Mountains. It is dawn. The cheerful gypsies, singing, finish their work. It is now time to go down into the field to sell the crafted items. The old Gypsy Azucena and her son the troubadour Manrico remain around the fire. She has been captured in captivity of sad memories. She tells how old Count Di Luna ordered her mother to be burned and how she stole his son's revenge in order to take revenge. The gypsy wanted to burn it as they did with her mother, but she made the terrible mistake of involuntarily throwing her own child into the fire. Manrico is shocked by the story he has just heard. The young man realizes that he is not the gypsy's son. Azucena begs him not to take this to heart. No matter what, she loves him and will always look after him like a son. Now Manrico realizes why he spared Count Di Luna's life in a duel. Just as he was about to ram his sword into the chest of the fallen Count as if an invisible hand had stopped it. A messenger from Ruiz, a friend of Manrico, arrives and announces that Leonora is preparing to go to a monastery. The troubadour says goodbye to Azucena and quickly heads to the castle with her beloved.


The fourth picture

            In the yard of the monastery. Count di Luna is convinced that in his duel with Manrico he killed his enemy and now, together with a group of associates, he has come to the monastery to take Leonor away. Hidden in the shade of the trees, they watch the girl's forgiveness with her faithful friend Ines. It is impossible for Lenora to have a happy life without Manrico. Along with the nuns, she heads to the altar but is suddenly confronted by Count Di Luna. He tells her that he will not allow herself to become a nun - she must be his wife. Suddenly, Manrico arrives with his men. Out of luck, Leonora is saved in his embrace. In the duel, the Count is disarmed and the lovers avoid.




Fifth picture

Earl di Luna's military camp near Castellor Fort. The Count decided with his dawn troops to attack the fortress in which Manrico and Leonora are located. The spirit of all is lifted up by certain victory. Soldiers are coming in who have captured a suspicious gypsy hovering around the camp. She - Azucena - explains to the Count that she was looking for her son - the troubled Manrico - and asks her to be released. However, Ferrando recognizes in her face a long-sought criminal: this is a gypsy woman who stole and burned the Earl's younger brother. Celebrating that he was finally given the opportunity to avenge his brother and punish his greatest enemy, Count Di Luna condemned the captured old woman to die at the stake.

The sixth picture

Hall in Castellar Castle. Leonora and Manrico are happy - they live in love, and the danger that looms above them only makes them stronger. Everything is ready for their wedding. All they have to do is wait for the end of the siege of the fort by the troops of Count di Luna. The battle of life and death will soon begin; however, nothing can frighten Manrico. An alarmed Ruitz rushes into the hall with the news that Azucena has been captured by the enemy and will be burned at the stake. After revealing to Leonora that the captured and sentenced to death by Count Earl Gypsy is actually his mother, Manrico raises his warriors on foot and launches an attack on the enemy army to save her.


The seventh picture

Prison tower near the castle of Count di Luna. Manrico's warriors are broken and he is captured. Ruitz managed to save Leonora and now they are approaching the tower on an unprecedented night. The girl wants to help her beloved escape. Ruitz is afraid to leave Leonora alone, but she is not afraid - she is wearing a ring full of poison оn her hand. Footsteps are heard and Leonora is hiding. The thirst for revenge brought the count here. He was able to capture Manrico, but Leonora was gone. Count di Luna orders Manrico and the gypsy to be burned immediately. Suddenly, however, Leonora appears before him. In vain are her attempts to arouse the generosity and mercy of the Count. He is absolutely adamant about his decision to destroy his enemy. Then the desperate girl declares that if the Earl complies with her request to spare the troubadour, she will become his wife. Her only condition is to allow her to say goodbye to Manrico. Earl Di Luna enthusiastically agrees and orders that they release Leonora to the prison tower. At the same time, she secretly drinks the poison. The young woman swears to the Count that this will be her last meeting with the troubadour.

Eighth picture

In prison, Manrico tries to calm Azurena's tormented. The torment has clouded the gypsy's mind. Only Manrico's tenderness helps her close her eyes. Suddenly, the dungeon door opens and Leonora rushes inside. She falls into the arms of her lover and happily announces that he is saved. Happiness also infects him. But briefly - to the point where the troubadour wonders how Leonora managed to save him. In vain she begs him to flee - Manrico insists on knowing the cost of his deliverance. Convinced of Leonora's betrayal, the troubadour bitterly reproached her for breaking her oath. He does not want such freedom. The poison gradually takes away and the last forces of Leonora and Manrico understand what the truth really is. The Count comes in and sees the dead Leonora in the arms of his hated rival. Outside of rage, Di Luna orders Manrico to be executed immediately at the stake. When they bring out the troubadour, Azucena wakes up. In vain are the Gypsy's attempts to thwart the Count - he is triumphantly pointing to the Azuchen flames already covering the unfortunate victim. Shocked, the gypsy yells at Count di Luna the terrible secret - "He was your brother! ... I took my revenge, mother!"…